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Thursday, 22 June 2017

Golongan Ahlus- Sunnah Menurut Imam Al-Baghdadi Di Dalam Kitab Al-Farq Bayn Al-Firaq



السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على أشرف الأنبياء والمرسلين ، سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ، ومن تبعه بإحسان إلى يوم الدين





1.1       Pengenalan

Penulisan ini cuba menghuraikan maksud golongan Ahli Sunnah Wa-Jamaah menurut Al-Baghdadi yang ditulis oleh beliau di dalam Kitab Al-Farq Bayn Al-Firaq (Perpecahan Muslim dan Mazhab). Untuk menulis artikel ini, penulis tidak merujuk terus kepada Kitab Al-Farq Bayn Al-Firaq yang ditulis oleh beliau, tetapi merujuk kepada terjemahan yang telah dibuat oleh Kate Chambers Seelye yang telah menterjemahkan Kitab Al-Farq Bayn Al-Firaq ke dalam Bahasa Inggeris (Kate Chambers Seelye 1920). Kate telah membahagikan Kitab ini kepada 3 Bahagian dan setiap bahagian tersebut mempunyai beberapa sub-topik dan ia boleh diringkaskan seperti berikut:

Bahagian
Sub Topik
Tajuk
Halaman
Pengenalan
1- 20
I
Bab 1
Kelompok-kelompok Di Dalam Masyarakat Muslim
21
II
Bab 1
Pendahuluan
25
Bab 2
Penjelasan Idea
27
Bab 3
Pembahagian Kelompok Mengikut Mazhab
31
III
Bab 1
Kelompok Rawafid
43
Bab 2
Kelompok Kharijlyah
74
Bab 3
Doktrin Kelompok Mu’tazilah & Qadariyah
116
Bibliografi
211
Index
215


1.2       Biodata Al-Baghdadi

Berdasarkan maklumat yang diterjemahkan oleh Kate Chambers, berikut diperturunkan serba sedikit latarbelakang Al-Baghdadi. Nama sebenarnya beliau ialah Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Kahir ibn-Tahir ibn-Muhammad Al-Baghdadi (w. 429 H/1037 M), menurut ibn-al-Salah iaitu anak lelaki Tahir ibn-Muhammad al-Baghdadi (283). Abd al-Kahir berasal dari Baghdad. Ketika usia mudanya, beliau mengikut ayahnya ke Nisapur di mana dia belajar pelbagai ilmu sehingga beliau menjadi mahir dan sangat terkenal dengan sangat pakar ilmu aritmetik. Walaupun begitu, Usuluddin (teologi) yang paling diminatinya. Dia adalah murid kepada Abu-Ishak al-Isfara'ini, yang dia berjaya dan menggantikan tempat gurunya selepas gurunya itu meninggal dunia pada 418 H (1027 M) sebagai guru dan pemimpin. Semasa konflik pemberontakan orang-orang Turki, telah memaksa Al-Baghdadi untuk berlindung di Isfarain pada 429H (1037M) sehingga beliau meninggal dunia dan dikebumikan bersebelahan gurunya Abu-Ishak (Kate Chambers Seelye 1920).

2.1       Golongan Ahlus- Sunnah Menurut Imam Al-Baghdadi


Bahagian ini hanya menjelaskan siapakah Ahlussunnah menurut penulisan Imam al-Baghdadi yang telah menjadi rujukan definisi ASWJ. Beliau membahagikan golongan ASWJ kepada 8 kelompok
(Muhammad Uthman el-Muhammady 2011) (Asmadi Mohamed Naim 2009) iaitu:
 
Beliau menyatakan (hal.19): "Maka golongan yang ke 73 ialah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah iaitu golongan ahl al-ra'y (Ibu Hanifah dan murid-muridnya) dan ahlu al-hadis; bukan mereka yang mempermain-mainkan hadis; dan ulama fikah mereka, penghafal al-Quran mereka, perawi hadis daripada mereka, dan ulama hadis di kalangan mereka, semuanya sepakat atas keesaan Pencipta, keesaan sifat-sifat-Nya, keadilan-Nya, hikmah-Nya dan nama-nama-Nya dan pada bab kenabian dan kepimpinan, hukum hudud dan pada perkara Usuluddin." 

Seterusnya, Imam al-Baghdadi Rahimahullah memperincikan lapan golongan yang termasuk dalam Ahlusunnah wal Jamaah (lihat bukunya dari halaman 240-243):

            Golongan pertama, mereka yang menguasai ilmu khususnya dalam bab Tauhid (meng-esa-kan Allah) dan kenabian, hukum-hukum wa'ad (khabar gembira) dan wa'id (ancaman seksa), pahala dan balasan, syarat-syarat ijtihad, pemerintahan dan kepimpinan. Mereka yang melalui jalan ini ialah ulama Kalam (Tauhid) yang bebas dari fahaman tasybih (menyerupakan sifat Allah dengan makhluk) dan bebas daripada fahaman ta'til (yang menafikan sifat-sifat yang Azali bagi Allah SWT), dan bebas daripada bidaah al-Rafidhah, Khawarij, Jahmiah, Najariah dan seluruh pengikut bidaah dan hawa nafsu. 

            Golongan kedua ialah imam-imam fiqh sama ada kumpulan yang cenderung pada rakyun (dalil aqal) atau hadis. Iaitu mereka yang beriktikad (berkeyakinan) pada perkara usuluddin dengan mazhab-mazhab sifat pada Allah dan pada sifat-sifatnya yang azali (membicarakan sifat-sifat Allah SWT sebagaimana sifat 20), dan mereka bebas daripada fahaman Qadariah dan Muktazilah; mereka menetapkan melihat Allah Taala dengan mata (di akhirat kelak) dengan mata tanpa tasybih (menyerupakan Allah dengan makhluk), tanpa ta'til' (menafikan sifat-sifat Allah). Termasuk dalam golongan ini ialah murid-murid kepada Malik, al-Shafie, al-Auza'i, al-Thauri, Abu hanifah, Ibn Abu Laila (wafat148H), sahabat-sahabat Abu Thaur (wafat240H), sahabat-sahabat Ahmad bin Hanbal (wafat241H), ahli al-Zahir, keseluruhan ulama fiqh yang beriktikad dalam bab-bab akal ini dengan prinsip-prinsip Sifat (tauhid yang membahaskan Sifat-sifat Allah). Dan mereka tidak mencampurkannya dengan apa-apa daripada ahli bidaah dan hawa nafsu.

            Golongan ketiga ialah mereka yang menguasai ilmu-ilmu yang berkaitan dengan periwayatan hadis dan sunnah yang disampaikan oleh Nabi SAW, mereka berupaya membezakan antara sahih dan cacat antaranya, mengetahui sebab-sebab al-jarh wa al-ta'dil (kredibiliti seorang rawi) dan mereka tidak memasukkan ilmu mereka dengan apa-apa daripada ahli bidaah dan nafsu yang menyesatkan. 

Golongan keempat ialah kaum yang menguasai kebanyakan topik-topik sastera Arab, nahu dan saraf. Mereka berada atas jalan pakar bahasa seperti al-Khalil (wafat175H), Abu 'Amr bin al-'Ala (wafat 145), Sibawaih (wafat 180H), al-Farra' (wafat 207H), al-Akhfash (wafat 215H), al-Asma'i, al-Mazini (wafat 236H), Abu Ubaid (wafat 224H) dan seluruh imam-imam Nahu sama ada ulama-ulama Kufah atau Basrah, yang mana mereka tidak mencampurkan ilmu mereka dengan sesuatu daripada bidaah al-Qadariah, atau Rafidhah atau Khawarij.Maka sekiranya seseorang itu cenderung ke arah nafsu yang menyesatkan, maka bukanlah ia daripada golongan Ahlussunnah walaupun kata-katanya adalah 'hujah' dalam ilmu bahasa dan Nahu. 

Golongan kelima, antaranya ialah mereka yang menguasai ilmu yang berkaitan dengan jenis-jenis qiraat untuk al-Quran dan jenis-jenis tafsiran al-Quran, penakwilannya berdasarkan mazhab-mazhab Ahlussunnah, tanpa berpegang dengan takwilan ahli nafsu yang sesat. 

            Golongan keenam ialah, antaranya ialah para ahli zuhud sufi yang mempunyai ilmu maka jauh pandangan, yang telah dinilai maka ia diiktibarkan, mereka reda dengan hidup yang ringkas, mereka mengetahui bahawa penglihatan, pendengaran dan hati dipertanggungjawabkan terhadap kebaikan dan kejahatan; menghisab dengan neraca zarah-zarah, justeru menyediakan diri mereka dengan sebaik-baik persiapan untuk hari Kiamat. Perkataan mereka berjalan di atas dua jalan iaitu secara jelas dan isyarat di atas jalan ahli hadis, tanpa mereka 'membeli' pandangan yang mempermainkan hadis. Mereka tidak melakukan kebaikan kerana riak, tidak pula meninggalkan kebaikan kerana malu kepada orang lain. Agama mereka hanya satu dan menafikan pentasybihan (menyerupakan Allah dengan makhluk), mazhab mereka ialah tafwidh (menyerahkannya) kepada Allah SWT, bertawakal kepada-Nya, penyerahan kepada-Nya, tenang dengan apa yang direzekikan-Nya. 

Golongan ketujuh ialah, antaranya kaum yang terikat dengan barisan hadapan peperangan dengan orang-orang kafir, berjihad melawan musuh-musuh Islam, mereka menjadi benteng melindungi umat Islam, meninggalkan isteri-isteri mereka dan negara mereka dan menzahirkan pada barisan hadapan mereka Mazhab ASWJ.

            Golongan kelapan ialah, antaranya kebanyakan negara-negara yang secara kebiasaannya terdapat syiar ASWJ, bukannya negara yang menzahirkan syiar ahli hawa-nafsu yang sesat.


3.1       Kesimpulan
Daripada 8 kelompok di atas, itulah huraian dan penjelasan al-Imam Abdul Qahir bin Tohir bin Muhammad al-Baghdadi. Rupanya, ramai sebenarnya yang diiktiraf sebagai Ahlussunnah. Ia berbeza dengan pandangan yang meminoritikan dan mengeksklusifkan ASWJ hanya untuk golongannya sahaja, dengan tuduhan sesat dan bidaah pada perkara remeh-temeh seperti qunut, talkin, zikir selepas solat, berdoa beramai-ramai dan sebagainya. Lihat kata Imam al-Baghdadi tentang perkara-perkara cabang (hal. 19): "Mereka (ASWJ) hanya khilaf mengenai halal dan haram pada cabang hukum, bukanlah khilaf tersebut mengundang kepada sesat dan fasik; mereka adalah puak yang terselamat, kerana mereka bersatu pada keesaan Pencipta dan qidam-Nya, qidam segala sifatnya sejak azali, dan harus melihat-Nya tanpa sebarang perumpamaan dan gangguan, serta yakin terhadap isi kandungan kitab-Nya dan rasul-Nya, dan mengikut segala syariat Islam dan menghalalkan segala yang dihalalkan oleh al-Quran, dan mengharamkan segala yang diharam oleh al-Quran serta menerima apa yang dibawa oleh Rasulullah SAW dan beriman pada hari kebangkitan dan perhitungan, dan soal dua Malaikat dalam kubur, beriman dengan telaga Kauthar dan Timbangan (Asmadi Mohamed Naim 2009).

Semoga penulisan ini membuka ruang minda masyarakat Islam di Malaysia khususnya agar tidak terbelenggu dengan isu-isu perdebatan yang boleh membawa kepada perpecahan hingga memperlekehkan sesuatu kelompok dengan kelompok yang lain hanya kerana perkara yang remeh temeh. Fokus umat Islam masa kini ialah masa yang perlu digunakan untuk memperbetulkan akidah dan fahaman Islam liberal seperti yang berlaku baru-baru ini seorang wanita warganegara Malaysia telah menyatakan bahawa larangan ke atas wanita untuk menjadi imam solat ialah satu bentuk penindasan ke atas wanita  (Sahlizah Mohamed 2017). Peranan utama ASWJ ialah mendidik dan membendung generasi muda agar tidak terpedaya dengan akidah dan aliran pemikiran yang menyeleweng.


Rujukan

 

 Asmadi Mohamed Naim. 2009, December 23. Golongan Ahlussunnah menurut Imam al-Baghdadi. Utusan Malaysia,. Kuala Lumpur.

Kate Chambers Seelye. 1920. Moslem Schisms And Sects. (Richard Gottheil, Ed.). New York: Colombia University Press.

Muhammad Uthman el-Muhammady. 2011. Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah Penyerapan Unsur - Unsur Akidah yang Mengelirukan Dalam Masyarakat Islam di Malaysia. Johor Bahru: Majlis Agama Islam Johor.

Sahlizah Mohamed. 2017, June 22. Zuraini jadi imam masjid liberal. Kosmo,. Kuala Lumpur.
 

Saturday, 24 December 2016

PERBEZAAN DI ANTARA TAMADUN DAN PERADABAN

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على أشرف الأنبياء والمرسلين ، سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ، ومن تبعه بإحسان إلى يوم الدين



Pendahuluan
Artikel ringkas ini adalah untuk menerangkan perbezaan di antara peradaban dan tamadun bagi memenuhi keperluan subjek Peradaban Islam Dalam al-Qur’an dan as-Sunnah.

Tamadun
Tamadun adalah suatu perkara yang bersifat abstrak dan digunakan untuk menggambarkan kemajuan sesuatu masyarakat. Dalam bahasa Arab, istilah seperti ‘umran, hadharah, bunyan, thaqafah, madaniyyah dan tamadun adalah digunakan dalam pengertian tamadun.  Istilah terawal yang digunakan merujuk kepada tamadun ialah ‘umran yang diperkenalkan oleh Ibn Khaldun ketika membincangkan tentang sifat masyarakat dalam kalangan manusia. Perkataan umran ini adalah terbitan dari perkataan ‘amara yang bererti kawasan tanah atau rumah yang didiami orang, tinggal menetap, segolongan penduduk yang menetap dan seumpamanya      dalam keadaan yang berkembang subur lagi makmur daripada keadaan yang kering tandus atau terbiar dan binasa, kawasan tanah yang ditanami dengan baik, sebuah rumah yang terpelihara. Ringkasnya ‘umran’ membayangkan pengertian kemakmuran[1].

Peradaban
Maksud peradaban dari sudut bahasa menurut Ibn Manzur ialah daripada akar kata ‘hadara’ yang bermakna sesuatu yang nampak[2]. Arnold Toynbee menjelaskan bahawa kekuatan spiritual (batiniah) memungkinkan seseorang untuk memanifestasikannya dalam bentuk lahiriah (outward manifestation) yang kemudian disebut sebagai peradaban[3]. Dalam konteks Islam, Sayyid Qutb menyatakan bahawa keimanan adalah sumber kepada peradaban. Keimanan yang dimaksud bukan sekadar kepercayaan kepada Tuhan, akan tetapi telah menjadi kombinasi antara prinsip kepercayaan kepada Tuhan dan kemanusiaan. Oleh itu prinsip-prinsip peradaban Islam menurutnya adalah ketakwaan kepada Tuhan, keyakinan kepada keEsaan Tuhan (tauhid), dan ketuanan (supremacy) kemanusiaan di atas segala sesuatu yang bersifat material, pengembangan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, penjagaan dari keinginan bersifat haiwani, penghormatan terhadap keluarga, dan sedar akan fungsinya sebagai khalifah Allah di bumi berdasarkan petunjuk dan perintah-Nya[4]. Pada pendapat penulis, teori ini lebih sesuai untuk menggambarkan peradaban yang bermula dari kekuatan spiritual atau agama dan terpamer kepada akhlak, peribadi, tingkah laku dan cara hidup manusia bersosial dan berinteraksi di antrasa satu sama lain termasuklah dalam semua aspek antaranya ekonomi, politik, pentadbiran, keselamatan dan sebagainya.

Kesimpulan
Pengajian peradaban dan tamadun adalah dua bidang ilmu yang saling berkait dan agak sukar dibezakan. Pada pendapat penulis, pengajian ilmu tamadun dan ada kaitannya dengan sejarah tamadun. Tamadun lebih memfokuskan kepada teori, konsep asas dalam tamadun, sifat-sifat dan ciri-ciri secara abstrak dan fizikal sesuatu tamadun. Manakala sejarah tamadun pula lebih menumpukan kepada pengalaman yang dilalui oleh sesuatu tamadun sama ada dari segi pencapaian, kemajuan, sumbangannya dan faktor-faktor kemerosotan yang menjadi punca kejatuhan kepada sesuatu tamadun tersebut. Oleh itu, penulis merumuskan bahawa bahawa peradaban yang mulia dengan keimanan yang mantap bersumberkan kepada al-Qur’an dan as-Sunnah akan melahirkan insan yang bertamadun dan ketamadunan yang tinggi.



[1] Nasruddin Yunos et all, Tamadun Islam dan Tamadun Asia, Pusat Citra Universiti, UKM, hlm 2
[2] Ibnu Manzur, Lisan al-‘Arab, Jilid 13, Beirut: Dar Sadir, T.Th, hlm 170-171.
[3] Dipetik daripada Muhammad Abdul  Jabbar  Beg, dalam The Muslim World League Journal, edisi November-Desember, 1983,  hlm 38-42.
[4] Ibid


Friday, 12 August 2016

Perbezaan antara hadits Fard dan hadits Gharib

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على أشرف الأنبياء والمرسلين ، سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ، ومن تبعه بإحسان إلى يوم الدين


Sedikit bacaan di hari yang berkat ini semoga hamba dan Muslimin sekelian sentiasa dalam kasih sayang Allah.

Hadits Fard dan Gharib iaitu dua lafaz yang bersamaan pada isthilah seperti menyebutkan dia oleh Ibnu hajar dalam al-Nukhbah dan al Munawi dalam al-Taarifat dan dalam Syarah al-Nukhbah dan Abu al-Thaib al-Abadi dalam Aun al-Maabud.

Akan tetapi mereka menyebut bahawa Gharib iaitu apabila dilihat pada asal sanad yakni tempat berkisar sanad atasnya sekalipun berbilang2 taruq/laluan kemudian daripadanya maka dinamakan dia fard mutlak.

Adapun apabila berbilang-bilang turuq/laluannya pada permulaan dan terdapat fard/tertunggalnya daripada sesetengah perawi umpama hadits yang meriwayatkan dia dari seorang sahabat oleh berbilang2 daripada beberapa Tabiiin dan Tafarrud/tertunggal ia dengan riwayatnya daripada seorang yang setengah  mereka itu seorang yang satu maka dinamakan dia fard nisbi dan dinamakan dengan demikian kerana keadaan tafarrud iaitu hasil dengan nisbah bagi sesaorang yang tertentu atau sifat yang tertentu atau negeri atau Bandar. Membuat mithal mereka itu bagi Fard Mutlak dengan hadits:


إنما الأعمال بالنيات


 Maka sesungguhnya tafarrud Umar dengan dia dan tafarrud Alqamah bin Waqqas dengan dia dari Umar dan tafarrud Muhammad bin Ibrahim at Tamimi daripada Alqamah dan tafarrud dengan dia oleh Yahya bin Sa
daripada Muhammad kemudian meriwayatkan dia oleh ramai perawi daripada Yahya

Membuat contoh mereka itu bagi fard Nisbi yang hasil tafarrud padanya dengan nisbah bagi seorang yang tertentu dengan hadits:

Bahawa ini hadits meriwayatkan dia oleh Imam Bukhari dan Muslim dan selain keduanya daripada beberapa orang sahabat akan tetapi pada salah satu daripada riwayat Imam Muslim iaitu tafarrud dengan riwayatnya dari Abdil Malik bin Al Sobah oleh rawi yang satu iaitu Abu Ghassan al Mismaie Malik bin Abdil Wahid.

Memithal mereka itu bagi hadits yang hasil tafarrud dengan nisbah bagi sifat yang tertentu seperti hadits riwayat Muslim dan Tarmizi dan Abu Daud dalam Sunan dan Abdur Razak dalam Musannaf dan Ibnu Abi Syaibah dalam Musannaf bahawa Nabi saw sentiasa membaca dalam solat aidil Adha dan Fitri dengan surah Qaf da Iktarabatis saangah.


 أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقرأ في الأضحى والفطر بـ ق والقرآن المجيد واقتربت الساعة.

Maka ini hadith iaitu meriwayatkan dia oleh Ubaidilah bin Abdullah bin Utbah dari Abi Waqid al Laithi dan tidak meriwayatkan dia dai Ubaidillah dari mana-mana thiqah melainkan Hamzah bin Saied dan sesungguhnya meriwayatkan dia dari Hamzah oleh Imam-iman seperti Malik dan Ibni Uyainah dan selain keduanya.





Tuesday, 12 April 2016

Domestic Violence as Aviolation of Human Rights against Women in Malaysia


السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على أشرف الأنبياء والمرسلين ، سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ، ومن تبعه بإحسان إلى يوم الدين



1.0       Introduction

Domestic violence includes many forms of violence and affects various parties including partners, children, servant and extended family. While it is a known fact that domestic violence also involves men, the elderly, children and domestic servants, the focus of this paper is on the deliberation of domestic violence against women. Researches show that women are more vulnerable to domestic violence and have a high percentage to become the victims of domestic violence[1]. Furthermore, the abuse of women through domestic violence will subsequently have an impact on the children under her care. Given the significant impact of domestic violence against women, this paper intends to provide some basic understanding on how domestic violence violates the human rights of women aswell as going against the teaching of Islam, and even any other religion for that matter.

This paper also demonstrates the gendered nature of domestic violence through historical and theoretical analyses. It draws on feminist theories of family violence and international human rights discourse including from Islamic persepective. By defining family violence both as women’s issue and public issue, it shifts the locus of domestic violence away from the private domain to the public sphere.

Domestic violence is an epidemic affecting individuals in every community, regardless of age, economic status, sexual orientation, gender, race, religion, or nationality. It is often accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior that is only a fraction of a systematic pattern of dominance and control[2]. Domestic violence can result in physical injury, psychological trauma, and in severe cases, even death. The devastating physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of domestic violence can cross generations and last a lifetime.[3]

It is not always easy to determine in the early stages of a relationship if one person will become abusive. Domestic violence intensifies over time. Abusers may often seem wonderful and perfect initially, but gradually become more aggressive and controlling as the relationship continues. Abuse may begin with behaviors that may easily be dismissed or downplayed such as name calling, threats, possessiveness, or distrust. Abusers may apologize profusely for their actions or try to convince the person they are abusing that they do these things out of love or care. However, violence and control always intensifies over time with an abuser, despite the apologies. What may start out as something that was first believed to be harmless (e.g., wanting the victim to spend all their time only with them because they love them so much) escalates into extreme control and abuse (e.g., threatening to kill or hurt the victim or others if they speak to family, friends, etc.). [4]

1.1       Definition and terms

According to ShariffahNuridah Aishah binti Syed Nong Mohamad and Noor ‘Ashikin binti Hamid in their research namely‘The crime of domestic violence against women in Malaysia: Its Concept and solution’ defined domestic violence is an act of violation of the objectives of the institution of the family that gave birth to a happy family where it is seen as widespread in society. [5]

Generally, violence against women can be defined as any act of genderbased violence that results or may result in visible physical injury, sexual or psychological harm or cause suffering of women. This action also covers threats to do that, coercion or acts restricting liberty, whether occurring in private or public life[6].  Violence implies destruction, anger, and pain; while family suggests the qualities of caring, love, and joy. Domesticviolence occurs at all family levels between couples, in parent-child relationships, sibling relationships, and often times, dating relationships. Domestic violence is deeply rooted in the lives of many American families.[7]

However John Hamel and Tonia Nicholls mentioned in their book namely ‘Family Intervention in Domestic Violence: A Handbook of Gender Inclusive Theory and Treatment’ that domestic violence also known as intimate partner violence or IPV, is being increasingly perceived as a human problem rather than a gender problem[8].

The Department of Justice United Stated of America defined domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner.  Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone.[9]

On the other hand, domestic violence also can occur among the elderly people. The definition of ‘elder abuse’ developed by Action on Elder Abuse (AEA) which is subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) is “a single or repeated actor lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person (Krug et al, 2002)[10].
The definition has also been used in Malaysia in a National Report on violence and health (World Health Organization, 2006)[11]. Abuse of the elderly has been recognized as a pervasive problem and a growing concern. As the functions of law are to maintain social control and protect public order, legislation is seen as an important mechanism to help reduce the abuse and neglect of the elderly.

If we refer to Domestic Violence Act 1994 (Act 521) interpreted domestic violence as below:[12]

(a) Wilfully or knowingly placing, or attempting to place, thevictim in fear of physical injury;
(b) Causing physical injury to the victim by such act whichis known or ought to have been known would result inphysical injury;
(c) Compelling the victim by force or threat to engage in anyconduct or act, sexual or otherwise, from which the victimhas a right to abstain;
(d) Confining or detaining the victim against the victim’swill; or
(e) Causing mischief or destruction or damage to propertywith intent to cause or knowing that it is likely to causedistress or annoyance to the victim,

The Act was subsequently amended by the Domestic Violence ActStairs (Amendment) Act 2012 [Act A1414] and in force at 20 February 2012. Among the major amendments is the definition of terrorismhouseholds were extended from abuse isphysical abuse, she was "psychologically includedemotional injury to and use of materialsintoxicant or any other substance that causes delusionsto the victims”[13]

Based on the abovementioned definitions, we are of the view that domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, emotional abuse and economy abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically. However, the one constant component of domestic violence is one partner’s consistent efforts to maintain power and control over the other.


1.3       Problem Statement

Domestic violence is a form of abuse that often occurs when one spouse (usually men) are trying to control or dominate a partner. Often, the behavior intentionally or unintentionally tries to put the victim in fear of physical harm, intimidation, emotional disorders and speech disorders (invective and diatribe). The treatment also, forcing or threatening sexual acts or acts that had an effect on the wife of negative emotional and psychological, of which the victim is entitled to do so. In addition, victims are confined tono dealings with the outside world and forced to do things like sex and things that are against their religion against the victim. It is contrary to the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh, in which:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رضي الله عنها قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- خَيْرُكُمْ خَيْرُكُمْ لأَهْلِهِ وَأَنَا خَيْرُكُمْ لأَهْلِى.
[رواه الترمذى]

Meaning: " Aisyahradi'anha said: "The Messenger pbuh said: “The best of you is (husband) who is best to his family and I am the best for my family. " [14]
Based on the word of Allah s.w.t in al-Qur’an al-Kareem[15]:


Meaning: And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.

Islam protects the honour, chastity, purity and lineage of the family, so it encourages marriage and forbids free mixing of men and women. Islam gives each family member an important role to play. So fathers and mothers take care of the children and give them an Islamic upbringing; children are to listen and obey, and respect the rights of fathers and mothers, on a basis of love and respect. Even our enemies have borne witness to the strength of family ties among the Muslims.

Islam honoured women, whether as mothers, daughters or sisters. It honoured women as mothers. It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said[16]:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ أَحَقُّ النَّاسِ بِحُسْنِ صَحَابَتِي قَالَ أُمُّكَ قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ ثُمَّ أُمُّكَ قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ ثُمَّ أُمُّكَ قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ ثُمَّ أَبُوكَ -

Meaning: A man came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, who among people is most deserving of my good company?” He said, “Your mother.” He asked, “Then who?” He said, “Your mother.” He asked, “Then who?” He said, “Your mother.” He asked, “Then who?” He said, “Then your father.”

Islam honours women as daughters. It was narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said[17]:

مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ ثَلاَثَةُ بَنَاتٍ فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأَطْعَمَهُنَّ وَسَقَاهُنَّ وَكَسَاهُنَّ مِنْ جِدَتِهِ كُنَّ لَهُ حِجَابًا مِنَ النَّارِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

Meaning: “Whoever has three daughters or three sisters, or two daughters or two sisters, and takes good care of them and fears Allaah with regard to them, will enter Paradise.”



In 2013, the Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM) has released the report on statistic case for domestic violence from year 2012 to 2013 as tabulated below. Based on the report its shows that Selangor has the highest cases of domestic crime and Perlis has the lowest cases.

 Negeri
2012
2013
Perlis
               73
               91
Kedah
            144
            288
Penang
            184
            240
Perak
            265
            344
Selangor
            368
            512
Kuala Lumpur
            222
            243
N. Sembilan
            270
            502
Melaka
               71
               95
Johor
            264
            583
Pahang
            183
            165
Kelantan
            293
            413
Terengganu
            111
            178
Sabah
            180
            231
Sarawak
            236
            237


Table 1: Statistic Case Domestic Violence 2012 – 2013[18]

Subsequently, PDRM also released another domestic violence reported in 2014 and cases has been increased to 4,807 cases nationwide as compared to 3,053 cases in 2013 of deficits improve as much as 36 percent.[19]

In addition to the above, domestic violence is a serious problem that often applicable in Malaysia. According to report released by Women Aids Organization (WOA) on 23rd June 2015, 9 % of women in Malaysia ever have been married spouse or through domestic violence.[20]

To support its finding, WOA has conducted the study and the outcome from the study reveals that the survivors of domestic violence experience many forms of abuse. Out of the 93 survivors who sought shelter at WAO, more than 95% were abused physically and psychologically, 52% financially, 49% socially and 35% sexually. The most common form of abuse was being beaten by hand, kicked and being beaten with objects. Who are the abusers, and when did the abuse start? A total of 71% of survivors were abused by their husbands or ex-husbands, and 15% were abused by family members.[21]

Throughout 2014, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development received a complaints from public and based on its annual report[22] shows an evidence that most domestic violence in Malaysia proves that the women, children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the problem of domestic violence. The details of complaints according to the type of cases are as tabulated in Table 2 below:

Table 2: Details of cases received by Jabatan Pembangunan Wanita
No
Case Type
No of Cases
1
Financial Assistance Management
982
2
Human Trafficking
450
3
Financial Assistance
306
4
Marriage
80
5
Help Commercial Premises
69
6
Split
41
7
Housing Assistance
40
8
Custody
30
9
Health
29
10
Domestic Violence
16
11
Loans
15
12
Maintenance
12
13
Pregnancy Without Marriage
10
14
Matrimonial Property
10
15
Abuse of Women
10
16
Sexual Harassment
9
17
Polygamy
8
18
Discrimination in the workplace
8
19
Running from home
7
20
Psychological problems
7
21
Estates
6
22
Ilegitimate Child
6
23
Foreigners
5
24
Illegal money lending
4
25
Pension/Insurance/EPF/SOCSO
4
26
Torture men
2
27
Rape
1
28
Incest
1
29
Child Abuse
0
30
Obsense
0
31
Other
206

Total Cases Counseling
       2,374

All the above complainst has been lodged via TALIAN NUR 15999. Talian NUR Hotline 15999 is a free one-stop call center operating24 hours a day for 365 days a year and can be accessed throughfixed line, mobile or public phones.Through this line, the public can report various social problemsprevailing in Malaysia such as domestic violence, children abuse,and poverty or to inquire about the status of applied aid.For the year 2014, 50,495 hotline calls were received, of which14,643 were abandoned calls.The highest frequency of phone calls was in March at 5,044 calls,March also saw the highest number of abandoned calls with afrequency of 1,513 calls.[23]



1.4       Reseach Methodology

This paper is an exploratory study utilising qualitative approach. The paper also uses an exploratory and descriptive in nature. This design is appropriate because in Malaysia the issue of domestic violence is under researched. The team decided not to pursue with quantitative approach due to this method requires longer period of time for data collection and analysis because the approach may be labour intensive and time consuming

1.4.1   Sources

The primary source in conducting this study is through a research done at the National Library and Tun Sri Lanang Library. The term is commonly called as library research that refers to the process of gathering data from books and papers consisting of primary and secondary sources. In addition, the secondary source is derived from the books. The primary sources for this study are al-Qur’an al Kareem and al-Hadith.

1.4.2   Aim of this paper

The central aim of this study is to explore the experiences of women in Malaysia who areliving in an abusive relationship. The study expects to be useful in terms of forming part of the emerging literature on this subject and to add to the growing body of knowledge on domestic violence against Malaysian women. In fact, the outcomes from this research endeavour to contribute to knowledge enhancement, raising awareness along with the policy developments and practices concerning the problem of domestic violence in Malaysia. In particular, the key objectives of the study to be addressed are as follows:

                                              i.                To investigate the impact on abused women who experience domestic violence relationships
§  What aspects of the abused women’s lives have been affected due to the experiences of violence?
§  What impact do abusive relationships have on others?

                                            ii.                To identify the barrier that inhibits abused women from disclosing and seeking assistance from formal and informal supportive networks
§  What obstacles restrain abused women from disclosing the violence incidents?
§  How can the under-reporting of cases of domestic violence be overcome?

                                           iii.                To explore underlying issues faced by abused women in relation to their needs and the support of domestic violence service providers.         
§  What are the issues highlighted by abused women pertaining to local support systems?

1.4.3   The Importance of the Study

This paper will make an important contribution to our understanding of how domectic violence affected by the human rights is no longer correspond to the social values. It shows that domestic violence against women tends to be overlooked in Malaysia despite the fact that laws[24] appear to provide protection to this group. This paper also provides information to nuture the public especially Muslim through the interpretation of the al-Qur'an and al-hadith pertaining to domestic violence which is actually forbidden in Islam.


2.0       Categories of Domestic Violence

Domestic violence can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels. Domestic violence occurs in both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships and can happen to intimate partners who are married, living together, or those frequently on date. From law, sosial status, and human rights perspective, forms of domestic violence can be divided into five categories[25]:

2.1     Physical Abuse

Hitting, slapping, shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling, etc are types of physical abuse. This type of abuse also includes denying a partner medical care or forcing alcohol and/or drug use upon him or her.

2.2     Sexual Abuse

Coercing or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without consent. Sexual abuse includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner.


2.3     Emotional Abuse

Undermining an individual's sense of self-worth and/or self-esteem is abusive. This may include, but is not limited to constant criticism, diminishing one's abilities, name-calling, or damaging one's relationship with his or her children.


2.4     Economic Abuse

Is defined as making or attempting to make an individual financially dependent by maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding one's access to money, or forbidding one's attendance at school or employment. Psychological Abuse: Elements of psychological abuse include but are not limited to causing fear by intimidation; threatening physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner's family or friends; destruction of pets and property; and forcing isolation from family, friends, or school and/or work.

Domestic violence not only affects those who are abused, but also has a substantial effect on family members, friends, co-workers, other witnesses, and the community at large. Children, who grow up witnessing domestic violence, are among those seriously affected by this crime. Frequent exposure to violence in the home not only predisposes children to numerous social and physical problems, but also teaches them that violence is a normal way of life, therefore, increasing their risk of becoming society's next generation of victims and abusers.[26]



3.0       The causes of domestic violence

A study conducted by the research panel of violence against women established under the United States National Research Council concluded a number of theories on the causes of this violence. This theory is divided into three categories:

3.1       Evolusion

From an evolutionary perspective, the goal ofsexual behavior is to maximize the likelihood of passing onone's genes. This goal involves maximizing the chances thatone will have offspring who themselves will survive to reproduce.In ancestral environments, optimum male and femalestrategies for successfully passing on one's genes often did notcoincide because the amount of parental investment requiredby males is smaller than that required by females. Maleswere best served by mating with as many fertile females aspossible to increase their chance of impregnating one of them, females, who have the tasks of pregnancy and nurturing theyoung, are often better served by pair bonding. Sex differencesin current human mating strategies may be explainedas having been shaped by the strategies that created reproductive success among human ancestors. However, it is theorized that males who have difficulty obtaining partners are more likely to resort to sexual coercion or rape.[27]


3.2       Physiology and Neurophysiology

The physiological or neurophysiological correlates of violence andaggression that have received particular attention are the functioning of steroid hormones such as testosterone; the functioning of eurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA); neuroanatomical abnormalities neurophysiological abnormalities, and brain dysfunctions that interfere with cognition or language processing. This literature has been well reviewed by Fishbein, (Fishbein, 1990) that highlights the overall findings and notes studies that have specifically looked at violence against women.[28]


3.3       Alcohol

The relationship of alcohol to violence is a complex one, involving physiological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors. The exact effects of alcohol on the central nervous systemremain in question, but non experimental evidence indicates that alcohol may interact with neurotransmitters, suchas serotonin, that have been associated with effects on aggression. There are methodological weaknesses in the studies of the links between alcohol and violence, including lack of clear definitions of excessive  alcohol use and a reliance on clinical samples with an absence of control samples[29]. Nonetheless, research has consistently found that heavy drinking patterns are related to aggressive behavior, in general, and to intimate partner and sexual violence. However, exactly how alcohol is related to violence remains unclear. Obviously, many battering incidents and sexual assaults occur in the absence of alcohol, and many people drink without engaging in violent behavior (Kantor and Straus, 1990).[30]

3.4       Psychopathology and Personality Traits

A number of studieshave found a high incidence of psychopathology and personality disorders, most frequently antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality organization, or post traumaticstress syndrome, among men who assault their wives (Hambergerand Hastings, 1986, 1988, 1991; Hart et al., 1993;Dutton and Starzomski, 1993; Dutton, 1994, 1995; Dutton etal., 1994). A wide variety of psychiatric and personality disordershave also been diagnosed among sexual offenders, mostfrequently some type of antisocial personality disorder (Prentky, 1990).[31]


3.5     Attitudes and Gender Schemas

Cultural myths about violence, gender scripts and roles, sexual scripts and roles, and male entitlements are represented at the individual level as attitudes and gender schemas. These hypothetical entities are expectancies that give meaning to and may even bias interpretation of on going experience, as well as provide a structure for the range of possible responses. Acceptance of beliefs that have been shown to foster rape has been demonstrated among a variety of Americans, including typical citizens, policeofficers, and judges (Field, 1978; Butt, 1980; Mahoney etal., 1986).[32]


3.6       Sex and Power Motives

Violence against women is widely believed to be motivated by needs to dominate women. This view conjures the image of a powerful man who uses violence against women as a tool to maintain his superiority, but research suggests that the relationship is more complex. Power and control frequently underlie intimate partner violence, but the purpose of the violence may also be in response to a man's feelings of powerlessness and inability to accept rejection.[33]



4.0       Domestic Violence and Violation of Human rights

While recognition of violence against women as a human rights issue and the development of international legal mechanisms for addressing such human rights abuses represent a significant step forward, a number of challenges remain. Specifically, how can international human rights instruments and the treaty bodies established under them be made relevant to individual women when so many acts of violence were being perpetrated by private individuals independent of the State? In the past, a State could only be held responsible for acts committed on its behalf or through one or more of its agents (Halliday 2001). [34]

Feminist and human rights scholars have approached this dilemma in a number of ways. Some have argued domestic and other forms of violence amounted to torture under international standards, others have suggested that systems of gender discrimination in society create an environment where violence against women is condoned (Lambert & Pickering 2001). For either of these arguments to hold any weight however, one must accept that the State has a duty to exercise due diligence in ensuring that the provisions of various international documents are upheld.  Although still contentious, support for the concept can be found not only in the Conventions and Declarations themselves, but in regional human rights instruments, in recent judicial decisions, in recommendations made by UN Committees and Special Rapporteurs and in reports submitted by non-government organisations such as Amnesty International (Coomaraswamy 1994).[35]

 The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women provides a concise summary of the meaning and standard applied to the concept of due diligence. The Preamble asserts that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations in society and that its eradication therefore requires an analysis of not only violent acts but of the social conditions, institutions and norms which perpetuate them. Accordingly, a State party to the Declaration has a responsibility to not only refrain from engaging in or encouraging acts of violence against women but to actively intervene in and exercise due diligence in the prevention of such acts (Coomaraswamy 1994; Amnesty International 2001). The concept of due diligence thus provides advocates for victims of domestic violence[36]


5.0       Recommendations to Prevent the Domestic Violence

This segment examines the types of responses society hasmade to violence against women. There are a number ofways in mitigating the domestic violence and here are some of prevention steps to be considered:

5.1     Preventive Intervention Efforts

Preventive intervention efforts have largely consisted of education based programs such as seminar or awareness programs on conflict mediation, violence prevention in general, dating violence, sexual abuse, and spouse abuse. We acknowledged that there are few seminars conducted by Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, however, the awareness program to nurture the public about domestic violence and its implication should be extended to the schools, college and universities. The reason being is that sexual assault and rape education programs seem to be increasingly common on college campuses and conflict resolution program is extensively offered in development countries such as United States, United Kingdom and Australia.

5.2       Media Roles

As we are aware that public education campaigns, such as those mounted
against smoking, drunk driving and using the handphone while driving are a universal preventive intervention that have been part of other successful community prevention projects in Malaysia. It is highly suggested that Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development to allocate some budget in advertising in conjunction with the “Family Violence Prevention Program” for instant as part of public education campaign against  domestic violence. The campaign consists of television, radio, and print public service announcements. The campaign should be designed to increase public awareness of battering and to motivate individuals to take action to reduce and prevent abuse.

5.3       Rape Prevention

This paper also highly recommended that the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development also need to address the rape cases such as rape resistance strategies involve recommendations to women on what to do should they be attacked.




6.0       Conclusion

Despite these policies being put in place, women continue to be subjected to all sorts of abuse and the numbers are still rising. It is not difficult to understand why. Traditionally and physically, women tend todepend on  men to protect them. Out of respect and pressure to conform to the characteristic of good or submissive wives, they often have no voice of their own for fear going against the religion and society believes.. In many cases, they are dependent on their husband  to enjoy better living. Therefore, as long as these  women are not protected from the  perpetrators of violence, the cycle of violence will continue and, when these women’s children become adults, they too will become perpetrators of violence, as they do not know any better. There is a need for us to promote, communicate and deliver our commitment to supportthis underprivilege group.

Additional to the above, abuse on the vulnerable elderly is also seriously unacceptable in a contemporary society. Analyses of the provisions in the Domestic Violence Act reveal that the existing legislation is not sufficient to give full protection to the elderly victims of abuse and neglect. In order to ensure the rights of Malaysian elderly are well protected under the Act, major amendments need to be done to the Domestic Violence Act. Based on the analysis, it is proposed that a specific Act should be enacted to give a comprehensive protection to the elderly. The abovementioned Act also include among others, a clear definition of elderly, definition of elder abuse and domestic elder abuse, a distinction between terms associated with abuse, as well rights of elderly as the whole. It is submitted that in Malaysia in offering services to elderly, it is based on welfare scheme rather thanrights based approach. By having a specific Act for elderly, it is hoped that the rights of the Malaysian elderly will be strengthened and the rights of the child and women will be continuously protected in future.




References:


Al-Qu’ran

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[1] Halimah Awang & Sharon Hariharan, page 459
[2] H. Bradby, Defining Violence, page 33
[3] Hamidah binti Abdul Rahman,  page 4
[4] Halimah Awang & Sharon Hariharan, page 460
[5]Shariffah Nuridah Aishah binti Syed Nong Mohamad &Noor ‘Ashikin binti Abdul Hamid. 2010, page 2
[6]Crowekk N.A & Burgess A.W., 1996, page 10
[7] English, Marshall & Stewart, 2003
[8]John Hamel & Tonia Nicholls. 2007, page 3
[9] The Department of Justice United Stated of America at http://www.justice.gov/ovw/domestic-violence
[10] Please refer to the World Report on Violence and Health, 2002,page 126
[11]World Report on Violence and Health, 2006. page 178
[12] Domestic Violence Act 1994 (Act 521), page 6
[13] Domestic Violence Act Stairs (Amendment) Act 2012 [Act A1414], page 4
[14]Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi and classed as saheeh by al - Albanian in Ash Shahihah (no. 285 )
[15]Ar-Ruum 30:22
[16] Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5626; Muslim, 2548
[17] Narrated by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, 2/190
[18]Source : PDRM
[19] Women Aids Organization,Case Studies In Domestic Violence Response, 2015 Report
[20] Women Aids Organization,Case Studies In Domestic Violence Response, 2015 Report
[21] http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/opinion/letters/2014/06/05/domestic-abuse-still-a-very-real-concern/
[22]Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development,Annual Report 2014, page 189
[23]Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development,Annual Report 2014, page 142
[24] Domestic Violence Act 1994 (Act 521) & Domestic Violence Act Stairs (Amendment) Act 2012 [Act A1414]
[25]The Department of Justice United Stated of America at http://www.justice.gov/ovw/domestic-violence
[26]Ibid
[27]Crowell N.A & Burges A.W., 1996. Understanding Violence AgaintsWolmen, page 51
[28]Fishbein, D.H. 1990. page 27
[29] For a more complete review of the research and methodological weaknesses, see Leonard and Jacob, 1988
[30] Intimate Violence and Alcohol fact sheet, page 2
[31]Crowell N.A & Burges A.W., 1996.Understanding Violence Againts Women, page 78
[32] Ibid, page 81
[33] Ibid, page 83
[34]Mohd Helmi Abd Rahim & Mohd Nizam Osman. 1990, page 153
[35] Zoe Craven , Human Rights and Domestic Violence, page 5
[36] Ibid, page 6